Inductive Method in Mathematics Teaching B.Ed Notes

Inductive method is to move from specific examples to generalization and deductive method is to move from generalization to specific examples.

A Child observes a rising of sun and getting of darkness after the setting of sun this he observes every day.
Conclusion: “The Sun Rises Every day and Also Sets Everyday”
A child eats green apple every time and feels its sour taste..
Conclusion: All the green apples are sour in taste

Principles of inductive method
It is proceeding from Concrete to Abstract, Particular to general, Example to formula and Direct Experiencing. Conclusions are based on repetition at many times. Child concludes after each observation. Child generalizes after many observations. A child measures each and every triangle and concludes that, “Sum of angles in every triangle is equal to 180 degrees”.

Examples for inductive method
A) Ask students to draw a few sets of parallel lines with two lines in each set. Let them. construct and measure the corresponding and alternate angles in each case. They will find them equal in all cases. This conclusion in a good number of cases will enable them to generalise that “corresponding angles are equal; alternate angles are equal.” This is a case where equality of corresponding and alternate angles in a certain sets of parallel lines. (specific) helps us to generalize the conclusion. Thus this is an example of inductive method. B) Ask students to construct a few triangles. Let them measure and sum up the interior angles in each case. The sum will be same (= 180°) in each case. Thus they can conclude that “the sum of the interior angles of a triangle 180°). This is a case where equality of sum of interior angles of a triangle (=180°) in certain number of triangles leads us to generalise the conclusion. Thus, this is another example of inductive method.

C) Let the mathematical statement be, S (n): 1+2+……+n. It can be proved that if the result holds for n 1, and it is assumed to be true for nk, then it is true fornk+1 and thus for all natural numbers n. Here, the given result is true for a specific value of n=1 and we prove it to be true for a general value of n which leads to the generalization of the conclusion. Thus, it is also an example of inductive method.

Merits of the method

  • Scientific Method
  • Content becomes crystal clear to students, as they develop on their own formula/ laws/Principle
  • Based on Actual Observation and Experimentation.
  • Thinking is Logical
  • Suitable for beginners
  • Increases Pupil – Teacher Relationship
  • Home Work is reduced.

Demerits of the method

  • Not suitable for all topics
  • Time Consuming Method
  • Laborious Method
  • Not Suitable for all types of students
  • Un- prepared teacher cannot make use of this method
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