Urban Livelihoods

• There are more than five thousand towns and twenty seven big cities in India,
• Big cities like Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata etc. have more than a million people living and
working here.
• The main reason for the increase in number of towns is migration.
• Villagers move to cities because of better facilities such as water, electricity, sanitation, education
for children, employment opportunities, etc.

In the Market

• There are almost one crore ‘street vendors’ in the country working in urban areas.
• There are many people who own shops in various markets of the city.
• These shops may be small or large and they sell different things.
• Most business-persons manage their own shops or business.

They employ a number of other workers as supervisors and helpers.

In the Factory-Workshop Area

• People employed in factories are mostly casual workers (called to work and have to leave
according to the availability of work).
• Casual workers have to work long hours in poor conditions without job security and other

In the office area

• Many workers in the city who work in offices, factories, and government departments where they are employed as regular and permanent workers.
• They attend the same office or factory regularly.
• They get a regular salary.
• Unlike casual workers they will not be asked to leave if the factory does not have much work.

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