Olympic Movements B.Ed Notes

Olympic Games: Olympic Games is an international sports event in which intercontinental and international competitors participate in the sports competitions. Participation in sports help the peoples to know one another and also it provides opportunities to the participant to see each. other

It unites countries and continents. The Olympic movement like sport in general by its

very nature brings in international understanding and opposes the division of the world,

rapprochement and friendship among people of all continents.

Objectives of Olympic Games

1. To develop interest and competence of life time participation in games and sports and for that purpose.

  • To develop physical and motor fitness i.e strength, endurance speed agility, flexibility balance, accuracy etc.
  • To develop good body mechanics and skills in a variety of dynamic forms of movements applied in games and sports
  • To develop a fir level of skills to specific major games and track and field events Gymnastics and yoga exercises

2. To develop interest for games and sports as a cultural heritage

3. To develop social aim.

4. To develop social qualities such as cooperation sympathy team spirit, helpfulness, tolerance, patience and sportsmanship.

5. To develop emotional maturity mental alertness and moral goodness

6. To develop Psycho somatic unity i.e. unity of the mind and body

7. To develop motor skills i.e Neuromuscular coordination

Ancient Olympic Games

The Olympic Games were held once in four years on the full moon day in the month of August or September at Olympia in Greece in honour of their God Zesus. We cannot definitely state the origin of these games, but these are a few legends which show that these games were in existence from very remote times.

Origin

1. It was believed by the Greeks that there was a wresting contest between God Zesus and God Kronos for the Possession of Earth. In the contest God Zesus won and in remembrance of the victory of Zesus, the Olympic Games were started.

2. Hercules it is said defeated King Augeas and in honour of his victory he instituted the Olympic games (Circa 1253 B.C)

3. Peoples won over king Aenomanus in a chariot race and married the latters daughter Hippodemia. As king Aenomaus died in the race itself. Peoples took his kingdom. Peoples was worshipped as a hero and behalf of his death the Olymbic games instituted (884B.C)

4. Another version states that Lycurqus, the Great Sparta law giver joined hands with Iphitus of Elis to Urestoreu the Olympic festival in 820 B.C. The version indicates that the games had been run before.

Thus these legends clearly show that the Olymbic Games had a long past

Although the origin of the Olympic games is lost if legend and obscurity the year 776 B.C. was reckoned and recorded as the date of the first ancient Olympics thanks to the efforts taken by Cleosthenes (King Pisa) and Iphitus (Kin of Ellis) who become weary of the war over the control of Olympia made a sacred truce and revived the ancient Olympic festival.

The winner of the first Ancient Olympics in 776 B.C. was Coroebus From this date onwards the games were held regularly once in four years until 394 A.D with the games were abolished by the Roman emperor Theodosius I.

Rules Eligibility for Competition

i. The participants should be free born Greeks

ii. The amateurs were allowed to participate

iii. The competition must have had at least 10 months of training prior to their participation in the Olympics the final month being spend at Olympia under the control of the Hellanodikai the official judges of the games.

iv. They should have no criminal record

Conduct of the Games

Assembly: Before the start of the games the competitors their trainers their trainers their fathers their brothers and the judges assembled in the council house in front of the state of Zesus (God of oaths)

Sacrifice: Sacrificed a pig to Zesus

Oath: All took an oath that they would not resort to any unfair means to secure victory further the competitions took the oath that they had 10 months of training as per Olympic regulations. Thereafter the Olympic judges swore that they would be honest and fait in their decisions

March Past: The march past took place in which the Trumpeter Officials and the competitors participated. In the courts of the March past as the competitors passed by the Herald announced to the spectators the name of each competitor his father’s name and his city and asked whether anyone had any charge to make against him. Silence on the part of the specifications was considered as No Objection for the competitor concerned.

Opening Ceremony: Then the herald proclaimed the opening of the games. The chief judge or some distinguished person addressed the participants. Afterwards the events were conducted the sacred fire was kept burning perpetually at the altar of Zesus.

Events

Originally foot race was the only item it Ancient Olympics and it was conducted in single day. Later on other events were added and they were foot race, chariot race, horse race, pentathlon (Running, long jump, discuss throw, javelin throw and wresting) Boxing Wresting, pancratium etc. Because of the addition of more events from time to time, the duration of the games was extended to 5 days.

The first day was devoted to religious sacrifice and oath taking and no Competitions were held.

On the second day there was a march past, the introduction of the competitions to the public and the opening of the games. This was followed by chariot race horse race and pentathlon.

The third day was the day of official sacrifice of a 100 oxen in the morning at the Altar of Zesus in The afternoon footrace; wresting and boxing were conducted for the boys.

The fourth day was reserved mainly for the chief athletic events for men via three foot race and the dual combats (Wresting, boxing and pancratium). The day’s programs would come to an end with the race in armour..

The fifth day was the last day which intended only for feasting and rejoicing

Originally women were not allowed to complete in the Olympics and the married women were not even allowed to witness the competitions. It is understood that women had their own festival called the heraca in honour of hera, wife of God Zesus In this festival women had athletic competitions. Later on women were allowed to Complete in the Olympics in the Chariot race.

Awards

  • The Olympic victor was highly honoured. It seems that tripods and other valuable objects were given as prizes to the Olympic victor till the 7th Olympiad.
  • Later on the only reward from the judges at the Olympic stadium was a wreath made out of Olive leaves plucked from the sacred Olive tree in the temple of Zesus.
  • Poets immortalized his name in poems and sculptors carved his figure in stones. The concerned Olympiad was named after the name of the victor of the state race i.e. 200 yards race.
  • The winners were escorted home in triumph by their fellowmen and loaded with honour, gifts and privileges. We even come to know that they were received in their cities not through the ordinary gates but through a breach made in the walls of the city. They were even considered as demo gods. To be crowned a victory in the Olympics was the highest honour to every Greek.
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