National policy of Education – 1968 (NEP 1968)

Based on the report and recommendations of the Kothari Commission (1964–1966), the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi announced the first National Policy on Education in 1968

This policy had called for a National School. System, which meant that all students, irrespective of caste, creed and sex would have access to education.

Main features of NPE-1968

Free and compulsory Education

In this great efforts were put to give free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14. Suitable programmes were developed to ensure that every child who enrolled in schools should successfully completed the prescribed course.

Status, emoluments and Education of teachers

More emphasis were given on the qualification and training of teachers.

Better emoluments and service conditions should be appropriate and satisfactory.

Development of languages

  • Use of regional language at the university level also
  • Three language formula ¢Use of Hindi, English and one regional language.
  • Development of Hindi and Sanskrit language all over India including non Hindi states.
  • International language: Special emphasis needs to be laid on the study of English and other international language.
  • Equalization of Educational Opportunities
    Strenuous efforts should be made to equalise educational opportunity.
  • Corrected and good educational facilities should be provided in rural and other backward areas.
  • promote social cohesion and national integration in the common school system as recommended by the Education Commission should be adopted.
  • Effort should be made to improve the standard of education in general schools.
  • Emphasis on the education of girls.

More intensive efforts are needed to develop education among the backward classes and especially among the tribal people. Educational facilities for the physically and mentally handicapped children should be expanded and attempts should be made to develop integrated programmes enabling the handicapped children to study in regular schools.

Identification of Talent

For the cultivation of excellence, it is necessary that talent in diverse fields should be identified at as early and is as possible, and every stimulus and opportunity given for its full development.

Work – experience and national Service

The school and the community should be brought closer through suitable programmes of mutual service and support.

Science Education and Research

With a view to accelerating growth of the national economy, science education and research should receive high priority. Science and mathematics should be an integral part of general education till the end of the school stage.

Education for Agriculture and Industry

Special emphasis should be placed on the development of education for agriculture and industry.

There should be at least one agricultural university in every state. Other Universities may also be assisted to develop strong departments for the study of one or more aspects of agriculture. ¢In technical education, practical training in industry should form an integral part of such education. Technical education and research should be related closely to industry. There should be provision for continuous cooperation between the two.

Production of Books

The quality of books should be improved by attracting the best writing talent. Immediate steps should be taken for the production of high-quality textbooks for schools and universities.

Frequent changes of textbooks should be avoided, and their prices should be low enough for all to buy them.

The possibility of establishing autonomous books corporations on commercial lines should be examined and efforts should be made to have a few basic textbooks common throughout the country.

Special attention should be given to books for children and to university level books in regional languages.


A major goal of examination reforms should be to improve the reliability and validity of examinations and to make evaluation a continuous process, it should aim at helping the student to improve his level of achievement rather than at ‘certifying’ the quality of his performance at a given moment of time.

Secondary Education

There is need to increase facilities for technical and vocational education at this stage. Provision of facilities for secondary and vocational education should conform broadly to requirements of the developing economy and real employment opportunities.

Facilities for technical and vocational education should be suitably diversified to cover a large number of fields, such as agriculture, industry, trade and commerce, medicine and public health, home management, arts and crafts, secretarial training, etc.

University Education

The number of students admitted to a college or university department should be according to the laboratory, library and other facilities and the strength of the staff.

New universities should be open only after an adequate provision of funds and due care should be taken to ensure proper standards. ¢Special attention should be given to the organization of post-graduate courses and to the improvement of standards of training and research at this level.

Part – time Education and Correspondence Courses

Part – time education and correspondence courses should be developed on a large scale at the university stage. Such facilities should also be developed for secondary school students, for teachers and for agricultural, industrial and other workers.

Education through part – time and correspondence courses should be given the same status as full – time education. Such facilities will provide opportunities to the large number of people who have the desire to educate themselves

Spread of Literacy and Adult Education

Programmes developed for the education of illiterates at mass level for better development of the country and for accelerating the production in industries and agriculture. Teachers and students should be actively involved in organizing literacy campaigns.

Games and Sports

Games and sports should be developed on a large scale with the objective of improving the physical fitness and sportsmanship of the average student as well as of those who excel in this department.

Education of Minoritie

Every effort should be made not only to protect the rights of minorities but to promote their educational interests as suggested in the statement issued by the Conference of the Chief Ministers of states and Central Ministers held in August 1961.

The Educational structure

It will be advantageous to have a broadly uniform educational structure in all parts of the country. The ultimate objective should be to adopt the 10+2+3 pattern, the higher secondary stage of two years being located in schools, colleges or both according to local conditions.

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